No More Bullet Points! What Your Student Should Know for PowerPoint Presentations

If your child’s classroom routinely uses technology, s/he has most likely had to give a PowerPoint (PPT) presentation. Even though PPT is taught as early as the 4th grade, some teachers still adhere to 1990s design rules when Microsoft first introduced the software. For example, one student I tutored had a school PPT assignment where every word in his oral presentation had to be typed onto a slide lest grade points be deducted. Can you imagine listening to 30 sixth graders reading off of slides?

Two major innovations, the 2001 introduction of Google Images and the 2006 introduction of TED Talks, have led to a more elegant way to create PPT. With Google Images, users can quickly find, copy and paste images with abandon. TED Talks has shown that PPT presentations need not be dull, bureaucratic affairs with droning speakers reading off of bullet points.

Instead, the more enlightened PPT user understands that PPT is really a refined, adult version of the children’s picture book. Just look at any popular TED Talks. No more bullet points. No more text-heavy slides. Instead, a large visual hovers above the speaker who brings life to the material by walking, speaking and gesticulating on stage. Just like when adults read pictures books to children, the image and the speaker become integrated into one memorable and enjoyable experience.

Remember M O C K R: Five simple rules to make your PPT more like a picture book.

Make it big.

Big font size. Big visual image. Font size should be no smaller than 30 point. Think big image or close up image. If you can’t read it in the thumbnail or printout, you can’t read it from the back row of the room.

One thought, one slide.

Your oral presentation can further explain the one thought. Remember, PowerPoint is Picture Book.


Keep your design, font, images and colors consistent. Choose one type of font and vary it by using different sizes and styles (italics, bold). For graphic images, use the same style, images and color scheme. For example, if your images are photographs, stick with photographs. Consider extending images to the outer edge to eliminate prominent borders. Don’t mix photographs and cartoons. Keep sight lines (eye gaze, arrows and diagonals) pointed towards your important information and not pointing out of the slide frame.

Keep it simple.

White space is nice space. Don’t overwhelm the viewer with too much information on a slide. Keep text to a minimum. You can explain more in your speech. Use handouts with additional information. For charts and graphs, emphasize the top 3 numbers. No more bullet points!

Rule of thirds.

This is a visual design principle that divides the slide area into thirds, either top to bottom or side to side. Rather than center information on the page, place information so it takes up one or two-thirds of the area. Simple asymmetry creates a more appealing layout.

Remember to cite your sites and where you copied your images if you did not create your own. Creative Commons is an organization that works with many websites like Flickr and Picasa. You can customize a Creative Commons search by selecting “advanced search” from From there, click “usage rights.” Further narrow your searches with options such as “free to use or share.” The website has content that has been approved for commercial use or further modification.

So make sure your students (and you, if you choose) learn a better way to create PPT. Several teachers I know have already used MOCKR in their classes. Please spread the meme.

Suggested Reading or Viewing Interview with Robert Gaskin, credited with inventing Microsoft’s PPT. Within several years of launch, PPT had a 95% market share of presentation software. In his interview, Gaskin reflects how ubiquitous PPT has become, quoting the Harvard neuroscientist Stephen M. Kosslyn: “For many purposes, PowerPoint presentations are a superior medium of communication, which is why they have become standard in so many fields.”  Jennifer Lopez’s plunging neckline-to-the-waistline emerald green dress worn at the Grammy’s prompted Google to introduced Google Images. It was the most popular search the company had received up to that time. Accessed Sept. 2, 2017. Last Week Tonight HBO. First aired May 8, 2016. TED Talks have become so popular they are now parodied. See John Oliver’s hilarious send up with TODD Talks. Begins about minute 16.

Garr Reynolds, Presentation Zen (Berkeley: New Riders Press, 2008). You need only look at Reynold’s makeovers with “before” and “after” PPT examples to understand his aesthetics. The book emphasizes Japanese Zen principles which I have translated into MOCKR. Reynolds’ book should be required reading or at least skimming for anyone who has to do PPT. His appendix showcases great PPT of different styles. Sophisticated business and professional users should also consider Nancy Duarte’s books Slide:ology and Resonate. Duarte’s firm designed the slides for Al Gore’s documentary The Inconvenient Truth and many TED Talks.

Luke O’Neil, “A Guide to Happy (and Legal) Tumblr-ing,” Wall Street Journal 21, May 2011.

The Enchanted Classroom…a cautionary tale

Once upon a time, in a land called Silicon Valley, there was a great and mighty school district that cast a powerful spell over the parents and teachers. With the wave of a wand, all the textbooks and all the lessons of all the teachers were magically placed inside a small, silver box. Each child received one of these magical boxes. Within its sleek and polished covers, “the Chromebook” as it was christened, contained everything students needed to learn for school. “Oh, how wondrous!” the children exclaimed, clapping their hands in delight. “I can learn at my own pace.” “I can take the quizzes as many times as I want!” “I don’t need to fear failure. I know I am just ‘not yet’ ready.”

Time passed and day after day as the children clicked through their personalized playlist of educational modules, a strange malaise came over them. “I didn’t understand my lesson, but my friend is two weeks ahead and she can’t help me.” “Sometimes the teacher lectures about things I finished a month ago.” “I miss talking about the stories.” “Why should I come to school if all I do is stare at a magical glowing screen?”

Then, one day, after seeing their children’s delight turn to dismay, the parents decided to challenge technology’s irresistible charm. They wanted a place where technology served the students and did not rule them. A place where children were not kept isolated and alone, clicking at flashing screens, but instead, shared what they learned with one another. A place where class size was kept small so that every child could speak and gain confidence in themselves and their ideas. Teachers would guide and direct students, focusing their attention on what was most important to learn. Tests would include written answers so that students could show they had understood and synthesized the material and not merely guessed correctly on a multiple choice exam.

Soon, reawakened, the children discovered that sharing and speaking about ideas is the first step to writing about ideas. They discovered that taking notes by hand helps them to remember more than taking a screenshot. They discovered that technology is very useful to find videos, facts and new words, but that critical thinking arises from reading followed by discussion followed by writing and rewriting. Most importantly, they discovered that the magic of learning comes not from a small, silver box, but from their own minds, the most magical technology of all.

The End.

Five Movies Based on Shakespeare That You Didn’t Know Were Based on Shakespeare

Happy New Year! If you’re like me you made a few resolutions. Here’s a simple and fun one to complete. Screen the following films, all based on Shakespeare’s plays. These films are a great way to introduce students to the works of the Bard, but without the Elizabethan language (the Rap of its day). Even though the settings have changed, the films still retain the major characters and themes of Shakespeare’s works. The Bard himself would have approved as he too did the same, liberally lifting his plots from other writers. All are available on YouTube, DVD and Blu-ray. In alphabetical order.


  1. The Bad Sleep Well based on Hamlet. (1960, Dir. Akira Kurosawa, B/W, 151 min.). Set in post-war Japan, the dashing Toshiro Mifune plays Koishi Nishi, the Hamlet-like son who seeks vengeance against the business executives who murdered his father. The rotten state of Denmark is now the rotten state of Japanese crony capitalism. Mifune’s character Nishi has become an icon in Japanese manga, a symbol of the lone avenger who uncovers the truth. In the final scene, Nishi stands defiantly amid the rubble of a destroyed Japanese factory, his white trench coat billowing majestically behind him, his fierce eyes framed in horn-rimmed glasses. As a bonus for film buffs, check out Tony Zhou’s 3 minute video “The Geometry of a Scene” on how Kurosawa frames the dialogue in this film.
  1. Forbidden Planet based on The Tempest. (1956, Dir. Fred M. Wilcox, Color, 98 min.). Dr. Morbius is Prospero; his daughter Altaira is Miranda; Commander Adams is the shipwrecked Ferdinand and Robby the Robot is Ariel. The special effects and space uniforms greatly influenced many later science fiction films and TV shows, especially the TV series Lost in Space and Star Trek. Although a bit hokey, the film still develops the major theme of The Tempest, the ability (or inability) of humans to control technology and magic. Caliban is recast as the powerful, chaotic force of the Id, the psychological dark side that all humans harbor. As Dr. Morbius states “What man can remember his own dreams?” a riff on Shakespeare’s line “We are such stuff as dreams are made on and our little life is rounded with a sleep.”
  1. The Lion King based on Hamlet. (1994, Dir. Roger Allers and Rob Minkoff, Color, 89 min.). Hamlet gets two film versions, such is the power of the Prince of Denmark, one of the most modern of Shakespeare’s characters combining doubt, madness and vengeance. Little wonder that Hamlet does well recast as either a 1960s Japanese salaryman or a1990s cartoon lion. Simba is Hamlet; his uncle Scar is Claudius; his dad Mufasa is Hamlet’s ghostly father. As a Disney movie, the violence and existential angst is toned down for the kiddies. Gone are the Oedipal references and Ophelia’s suicide. Shakespeare, however, would have loved the recasting of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern as the Borscht-belt comic characters of Pumbaa the warthog and Timon the meerkat.
  1. Throne of Blood based on Macbeth. (1957, Dir. Akira Kurosawa, B/W, 110 min.). Kurosawa’s film is a must-see for any high school student who will read Macbeth. Unfortunately, most teachers do not have the time to screen multiple films and will opt to show the more traditional cinematic adaptations of the play. Too bad. Read David Mermelstein’s 2015 article “Shakespeare, A World Away” on why Throne of Blood is “the finest rendering of any of Shakespeare’s play.” I agree. The great Noh actress Isuzu Yamada transforms Lady Macbeth into an eerie specter of insidious duplicity. Her chalk-white face and smudged eyebrows convey hysterical madness as well as any monologue. Film and Shakespeare buffs can also see Kurosawa’s epic Ran based on King Lear. This 1985 film runs 2 hours and 42 min so it didn’t make my top 5 list due to length but at least it’s in color.
  1. West Side Story based on Romeo and Juliet. (1961, Dir. Jerome Robbins and Robert Wise, Color, 152 min.). With music by Leonard Bernstein, lyrics by Stephen Sondheim, and choreography by Jerome Robbins, this musical was considered highly innovative for its time. Transporting the play from 16th century Verona to 20th century New York City, the film recasts Romeo as Tony, Juliet as Maria and the Montagues and the Capulets as the Jets and the Puerto Rican Sharks. For more insight into how West Side Story came into being, read Charles Duhigg’s account in his 2016 book Smarter Faster Better: The Secrets of Being Productive in Life and Business. Here is an interview with Duhigg where he discusses Jerome Robbins’ ability as an “innovation broker” with “incredibly wide ranging tastes. He would “read Romeo and Juliet and loved dime store novels. He knew ballet, but he would also go to these Jitterbug contests that they had all over New York.”  For  the best and most faithful cinematic adaptation of Shakespeare’s play, watch the 1968 Zeffirelli film. Avoid the 1996 Baz Luhrmann film Romeo+Juliet with Leonardo DiCaprio. Luhrmann’s frenetic editing along with the jarring use of Hawaiian shirts, sports cars and pistols render the film unwatchable.